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双语阅读:金星上发现了可能是生命的迹象,地球终于不再孑立了

本文摘要:在金星上发现了可能是生命的迹象翻译:涂博士在金星的云层中,漂浮着一种恒久以来被认为是生命特征的化学物质。金星的高层大气中泛起了一种无法解释的化学物质,科学家们开端建议这可能是生命的标志。这种未知的化学物质是磷化氢气体(PH3),地球上的这种物质主要来自厌氧(无氧呼吸)细菌或“人类运动”(人类正在做的事情)。 这种物质存在于气态的巨行星的大气中,这是因为在其有着庞大压力的深处,相关化学反映可以将三个氢原子和一个磷原子联合在一起。

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在金星上发现了可能是生命的迹象翻译:涂博士在金星的云层中,漂浮着一种恒久以来被认为是生命特征的化学物质。金星的高层大气中泛起了一种无法解释的化学物质,科学家们开端建议这可能是生命的标志。这种未知的化学物质是磷化氢气体(PH3),地球上的这种物质主要来自厌氧(无氧呼吸)细菌或“人类运动”(人类正在做的事情)。

这种物质存在于气态的巨行星的大气中,这是因为在其有着庞大压力的深处,相关化学反映可以将三个氢原子和一个磷原子联合在一起。但金星不是气态星球,没有已知的化学历程会在那里发生磷化氢,因此科学家无法解释为什么上金星会泛起磷化氢。似乎在那里,除了活的生物之外,没人知道工具能在金星上发生磷化氢的物质。

今天(9月14日)揭晓在《自然天文学》杂志上的这项发现让所有人(包罗发现它的团队)都感应惊讶。早在2017年6月,该团队便将位于夏威夷的James Clerk Maxwell望远镜瞄准金星,并对其举行了调整以寻找磷化氢的特征。他们在期刊论文中写道:“目的是为未来的生长设置一个基准。

”换句话说,他们想知道在一个假设没有自然发生这种物质的机制的行星上,把磷化氢的特征作为基准看上去会是什么样。研究人员在研究论文中写道:“但出乎意料的是,我们的开端视察讲明在金星上存在可检测到的PH3。”他们使用智利的Atacama大毫米/亚毫米阵列望远镜确认了他们的发现。

金星上层大气发出的光线变化讲明那里有大量的磷化氢。凭据论文作者,金星上的磷化氢并纷歧定意味着金星上有生命。磷化氢的发现只是提高了金星存在生命的可能性,在金星没有气态行星的那种超高峻气压力下制造磷化氢的可能性,所以细菌是那里制造磷化氢的唯一已知方法。固然,也可能有一些我们以前未知的化学历程在金星上发生这种气体。

他们写道:“这种物质的发生可能是某种未知的光化学(需要光的化学反映)机制,或地球化学机制,甚至可能是和生命相关的机制。现在我们在这方面的信息很是匮乏,例如,我们对金星云滴的光化学机制险些是一无所知。”这意味着没有人真正知道金星上层云层中的化学物质对太阳光会发生什么样的反映。在太阳系中,金星以前从未被认为是可能存在生命的场所,所以科学家们并未投入像研究火星那样的精神和资源来寻找金星上的生命迹象。

这个与地球差不多巨细的行星上面的高温及其有毒的大气化学物质甚至可以在几分钟之内摧毁最坚硬的机械人,生命如花能够在金星上生存呢?这篇新论文的作者指出,已往有一些研究人员提出了金星最上层云层中存在生命的可能性。与平均温度为867华氏度(464摄氏度)的金星外貌差别,金星的高层云层相对较为凉爽。在检测到磷化氢的云层的温度为85华氏度(30摄氏度),这就可以为某种类型的漂浮生物提供生活的栖息地。研究人员在论文中写道,要想弄清楚金星上的磷化氢究竟是来自于生物,还是来自其他泉源,我们将需要更多数据并更好的模型来模拟金星的行为。

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在开始阅读英文原文之前,请先温习下列焦点词汇:possible - adj. 可能的hint - n. 表示,迹象discover - v. 发现Venus - n. 金星chemical - n. 化学物signature - n. 签字,特征life - n. 生命upper - adj. 高层的atmosphere - n. 大气tentatively - adv. 开端地,暂时地sign - n. 标识unknown - adj. 未知的phosphine - n. 磷化氢phosphine gas - 磷化氢气体anaerobic - adj. 厌氧的bacteria - n. 细菌anthropogenic - adj. 人类的gas giant planet - 庞大的气态星球chemical process - 化学历程occur - v. 发生pressurize - v. 增压,使 … 加压breath - v. 呼吸hydrogen - n. 氢atom - n. 原子phosphorus - n. 磷benchmark - n. 基准baseline - n. 基准线unexpectedly - adv. 没想到initial - adj. 最初的observation - n. 视察detectable - adj. 可以探测到的amount - n. 数量photochemistry - n. 光化学geochemistry - n. 地球化学Venusian - adj. 金星的droplet - n. 水滴resource - n. 资源hunting for - 寻找toxic - adj. 有毒的survive - v. 生存下来behavior - n. 体现,行为在温习了以上词汇后,请将下面的英文原文一口吻读完,不要在中途停下往复查那些不认识的单词。有了上面的焦点单词打底,你完全可以将整篇文章读完而且明白内里的大致意思。

记着,你只要做到大致明确就可以了。阅读能力和阅读量成正比,要提高阅读量,必须是大量的泛读,如果要对每个不懂的单词都去查字典,那么就不行能通过大量的泛读来提高你的阅读量。这篇英语原文是《涂博士雅思领导课》直播班上用来训练学员快速阅读的文章之一。

能够快速阅读各个领域的原版文章并找出文中的焦点内容,是真正学好英语的最最基础的技术之一,另一个最最基础的技术就是听得懂原版的广播。有了这两个最最基础的技术打底,学员就可以使用好网上大量的原版英语文章和听力资源,不出国就可以把自己沉醉在英语的情况当中。在建设起强大的语感之后,口语和写作能力都市自然发展起来。如果你对某篇泛读文章特别喜欢,可以在泛读一遍以后再逐步地精读。

如果在精读的历程中对某些句子不是太明确需要解说,或者你希望以后多看到哪方面的双语阅读,接待直接联系涂博士。Possible hint of life discovered on VenusBy Rafi Letzter, Live ScienceA chemical long thought to be a signature of life is floating around in the clouds of Venus.An unexplained chemical has turned up in the upper atmosphere of Venus. Scientists are tentatively suggesting it could be a sign of life.The unknown chemical is phosphine gas (PH3), a substance that on Earth mostly comes from anaerobic (non-oxygen-breathing) bacteria or "anthropogenic activity" — stuff humans are doing. It exists in the atmospheres of gas giant planets, due to chemical processes that occur deep in their pressurized depths to bind together three hydrogen atoms and a phosphorus atom. But scientists don't have any explanation for how it could appear on Venus; no known chemical processes would generate phosphine there. And yet, it seems to be there, and no one knows of anything that could make phosphine on Venus except for living organisms.This discovery, published today (Sept. 14) in the journal Nature Astronomy, caught everyone by surprise — including the team that found it.Back in June of 2017, that team pointed the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii at Venus and tuned it to look for signatures of phosphine. "The aim was a benchmark for future developments," they wrote in the journal article.In other words, they were checking what the phosphine signatures might look like as a baseline, on a planet assumed to have no natural way of producing the substance."But unexpectedly," the researchers wrote in the study, "our initial observations suggested a detectable amount of Venusian PH3 was present."They confirmed what they were seeing using the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array in Chile. Variations in the light coming from Venus' upper atmosphere showed a substantial amount of phosphine there.But phosphine on Venus doesn't necessarily mean life on Venus, the authors wrote. They raised the possibility of life because bacteria are the only known way of making phosphine on a planet without a gas giant's super-high atmospheric pressures. But it's just as possible that some previously-unknown chemical process is producing the gas."This could be unknown photochemistry [chemical reactions that require light] or geochemistry, or possibly life," they wrote. "Information is lacking — as an example, the photochemistry of Venusian cloud droplets is almost completely unknown." That means that no one really knows how the chemicals in Venus' upper clouds react to sunlight.Venus has not previously been considered a likely site for life in this solar system, so scientists had yet to explore such questions with the same level of resources devoted to hunting for signs of life on Mars. The hot, almost Earth-size planet with its toxic atmospheric chemistry destroys even the hardiest robots within minutes. How would life survive on Venus?In the past, the authors of the new paper pointed out, some researchers have suggested the possibility of life in the planet's uppermost cloud layer. Unlike the surface, which averages 867 degrees Fahrenheit (464 degrees Celsius), Venus' higher clouds are relatively cool, reaching 85 F (30 C) in the layer where phosphine was detected, and could more plausibly offer a habitat for some sort of floating life.Figuring out whether that really is the source of Venusian phosphine, or whether it came from some other source, will take more data and better modeling of the planet's behavior, the researchers wrote.。


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